The development of the upland rice ecosystem offers an Rice is one of the most important crops for food security in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). D.D. Seeds germinate in about one week. Res. 43:120–128, upland rice as important drought tolerance resource, IAAS Cereal Crop Research Bulletin – 02-2008: Rice genotypes for drought stressed uplands of Nepal, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Upland_rice&oldid=985762472, Wikipedia articles with style issues from July 2017, Articles lacking in-text citations from April 2013, Articles with multiple maintenance issues, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. 0000025152 00000 n startxref Upland rice production accounts for 20% of the total rice produced inNigeria.WiththedevelopmentofNewRiceforAfrica(NERICA)for upland production systems, a number of farmers have shown interest in growing upland rice. The challenge facing scientists is to produce a high-yielding perennial plant adapted to the poor soils of the uplands, and one that is highly responsive to low amounts of purchased inputs, and that resists diseases and insect pests. Bangladesh, Cambodia, China, India, Indonesia, Myanmar, Thailand, and Vietnam are important producers. An escalating desire for food security is resulting in an increasing interest in small scale rice growing. Upland rice. In Southeast Sulawesi Province, Indonesia, upland rice has been cultivated by the traditional slash-and-burn system during the rainy season for many years2, 3, 4, 5). Adding lime to the subsoil is not practical, but in 1994 IRRI and Indonesian scientists began experiments to see if components of lime applied to the soil surface could be leached down into the subsoil. The general perception about the upland environment is that it is drought-prone, usually sloping land with erosion problems, and has … Subedi, S., U.R. Soils there have been badly eroded and degraded as a result of the slash-and-burn agriculture that for many years followed logging. Euphytica 162:395–410, Singh, Chandra Vir; Ghosh, Bidhan Chandra; Mittra, Bishwa Nath; Singh, Rama Kant.2008. The Brazilian grain yield of upland rice is ~ 2.0 Mg ha − 1, approximately 31.5% of lowland rice yield (CONAB 2017). (2000). The cultivation and The passage of the Organic Agriculture Act of 2010, otherwise known as RA 10068 signals a paradigm shift in agricultural production Studies in the Philippines have shown, for example, that hedgerows of trees, shrubs and grasses along hill contours can help reduce soil erosion up to 90 percent. Competitiveness of semidwarf upland rice cultivars against palisadegrass (. 0000002570 00000 n Tropical regions -- Upland regions -- Rice -- Production teelt Rice 0000002939 00000 n 0000025576 00000 n Arraudeau, M. A. Upland rice: Challenges and opportunities in a less favorable ecosystem. These varieties thrive in southeast Michigan. Upland rice, also known as dryland rice, needs warm temperatures to germinate. 2008. Review: Breeding upland rice for drought resistance. Gurung, S. Pandey.xxxx. These species, however, can be crossed with cultivated rice. However, upland rice production accounted for less than 5% of the total rice production in the 2000s (Panuju et al., 2013). Bangladesh, Cambodia, China, Northeastern India, Indonesia, Myanmar, Thailand, Nepal, and Vietnam are important producers.[1]. Tropical regions Upland regions Rice Production. Upland zones are found in Asia Farmer and Researcher contributions to the selection of Landraces of Ghaiya (Upland rice) for Tar areas of Nepal. On the other hand, upland rice in Southeast Sulawesi Province 466–470. Jerome Bernier, Gary N Atlin, Rachid Serraj, Arvind Kumar and Dean Spaner. Already the new upward pressures are resulting in a movement toward permanent agriculture and intensification of land use in upland areas. Many upland farmers plant local rices that do not respond well to improved management practices—but these are well adapted to their environments and produce grains that meet local needs.[2]. Unlike traditional paddy rice, upland rice is well suited for growing in the north's cold temperature conditions. Researchers from IRRI, Maejo University and Chiang Mai University launched a study in 1993 of the interactions between weeds, crop environmental conditions, and farmers' practices in upper northern Thailand. To make upland rice production viable, alternative approaches such as no-tillage are required. The results indicate that these technologies are now spreading in upland areas. However, in Asia, where more than 90% of the world’s rice is produced, upland rice remains an important crop for traditional smallholders1). to 13.2 million ha in 2010 (IRRI, 2013). Bergreis AGRICULTURE. 0000066564 00000 n 0000000016 00000 n For this purpose, we propose a three-step For this purpose, we propose a three-step linked procedure: (1) a risk … Journal of Agriculture Science. Upland rice is being partially replaced by other crops such as maize on one hand, on the other hand the land-races are gradually disappearing from farmers' fields. 0000028387 00000 n At present they are studying the processes that govern the rate of leaching of lime components and their accumulation in the subsoil. 0000002760 00000 n 2001. Ojha, D.P. Managing rice landscapes in marginal uplands for household food security and environmental protection- IAAS / IRRI collaborative project (Nepal Component). 0000064723 00000 n Research on farms in Thailand, Laos and the Philippines has confirmed what scientists had long suspected: that a lack of phosphorus in upland farms is limiting rice crop yields. PSB Rc9 has intermediate resistance to blast and bacterial leaf blight (BLB) but is susceptible to tungro. 0000068871 00000 n 0000011820 00000 n (2006).Field Crops Res 97:43–52, Fisher AJ, Ramırez HV, Gibson KD and Da Silveira Pinheiro B,(2001). But more improvements are needed to meet the new challenges. Rosyara, B.B. Diversity of upland rice can be maintained while at the same time levels of production can be increased using participatory techniques. 287 0 obj<>stream The ecosystem is extremely diverse, including fields that are level, gently rolling or steep, at altitudes up to 2,000 metres and with rainfall ranging from 1,000 to 4,500 mm annually. In one project on phosphorus management, they are investigating how weed communities change as soil fertility is improved over time in the Philippines, Indonesia, and Thailand. 171, no. The technologies considered were improved upland rice varieties and terraces. A five-day Training of Trainers on Upland Rice Production System for Agricultural Extension Workers in Central Visayas was conducted last November 21-25, 2011 at ATI-RTC 7 Training Complex, Tagbilaran City. trailer Ghimire. Site that contains description of and instructions for building a hand-powered table top or bicycle-powered rice de-huller. One approach is to search for rice plant species that exhibit a characteristic known as allelopathy. [3] Some have outyielded traditional rices by more than 100 percent in evaluations. Although this upland rice/S. IRRI scientists are pursuing projects on managing weeds with less herbicide use. It is the key crop in agricultural land use. average upland rice production is only 1.2 t ha-1 (MAFF, 2012). 2006. -Brillengineering.com. But the scientists found that the lack of phosphorus will limit production even if calcium is added to the soil to overcome the acidity, or if acid-tolerant cultivars are planted. Bangladesh J. Agril. Dhakal, H.B. The experiments began at the Upland Rice Research Consortium site at Sitiung, Indonesia. Upland Crops Rice Seed Production Systems Breeding and Seed Production Post-harvest Handling and Storage Pest Management Production and Pest Management of Selected Vegetables Soil Management Soil Quality Upland rice is grown in rainfed fields prepared and seeded when dry, much like wheat or maize. Gurung, and S. Pandey. 0 (under review), Pinheiro B da S, Castro E da M de, Guimara˜es CM (2006)Sustainability and profitability of aerobic rice production in Brazil. The land with soft-top black soil with more than 2 cm is preferable. <]>> Bangladesh, Cambodia, China, Northeastern India, Indonesia, Myanmar, Thailand, Nepal, and Vietnam are important producers. New biotechnology tools will be used to transfer the perennial characters into cultivated rice, and new knowledge of genetic diversity will be applied to develop pest resistance.[4]. Crop Sci. IRRI scientists are also studying how fertilizer and cultural practices influence weed communities. From the earlier releases of three upland rice varieties in Uganda in 2002 courtesy of the Rock feller support farmers were able to reap $9 million (14.9 billion) in 2005. Ghimire. Although the rice technology of the 1960s and 70s focused on irrigated rice, farmers in the uplands were not forgotten. This page was last edited on 27 October 2020, at 20:23. %%EOF RICE. 0000002486 00000 n One modern upland rice varieties that yields 2.9 tons per hectare (t/ha) on the average and matures in just 119 days is PSB Rc9 (Apo). The methods are applicable to dryland rice production and are being adapted to production of wheat and some vegetables. Dhakal, H.B. Pandey S., Behura D.D., Vilano R. and Naik D. Economic cost of drought and farmers’ coping mechanisms: a study of rainfed rice systems in Eastern India, in Discussion Paper Series. xڴVkPW�IB 4`�6]�CM!AG3��_I�b�!�j�u�� D�#jk@@,� International Rice Research Institute, Makati City, Philippines, p. 35 (2000). Besides, the land-use efficiency of intercropping was higher than that of sole cropping of upland rice or S. nigrum , as the LER of the intercropping system with and without AMF were much greater than 1.0 (2.28 and … PSB Rc11 (Canlaon), on the other hand, yields 2.6 t/ha on the average and matures in 125 days. Agric Water Manage 80:176–196 (2006). Upland rice is grown in rainfed, naturally well-drained soils with bunded or unbunded fields without surface water accumulation. Rice plays a dominant role in crop production for upland areas in the Philippines. Those involved find themselves faced—in addition to the usual upland problems—with an urgent need to conserve the soil and the diversity of plant species, and to cope with increasingly frequent and severe weed and disease infestations. These results suggest that CA has the potential to improve soil productivity of upland rice production in Laos, but that the effect of CA application is highly dependent on … An analysis of the patterns of technology adoption by upland rice farmers in southern Yunnan and of the impact of technologies was conducted using farm–household data collected during 2005. by Fisher T, Turner N, Angus J, McIntyre L, Robertson M, Borrell A, et al., Brisbane, Australia (2004). 0000015110 00000 n 0000003458 00000 n labour efficiency, upland farmers extended the field size and produced a large volume of upland rice far exceeding consumption demand. Pages 15-16. D.D. Upland rice production accounts for 20% of the total rice produced in Nigeria. Nearly 100 million people now depend on upland rice as their daily staple food. Use a heat mat to keep rice seeds warm. 2008. Vol (under review), Subedi, S., U.R. Such legumes can simultaneously increase farmers' incomes and contribute to sustainability of the farming system. Perenniality exists in several wild species of rice from Southeast Asia, but their yields are low. 0000068508 00000 n This article outlines some of the management practices being studied for sustainable rice production systems. xref Journal of plant nutrition and soil science. B. and Rosyara, U.R. xxxx. Atlin GN, Lafitte HR, Tao D, Laza M, Amante M and Courtois B, Developing rice cultivars for high-fertility upland systems in the Asian tropics. Scientists at national agricultural research systems have crossed these improved rices with local cultivars and farmers are now beginning to grow the progeny. Population growth, the demands of urbanism and industry, and the increasing adoption of high value cash crop farming in the surrounding lowlands are leading to strong competition for upland terrain. Atlin GN, Laza M, Amante M and Lafitte HR, Agronomic performances of tropical aerobic, irrigated, and traditional upland rice varieties in three hydrological environments at IRRI, in New Directions for a Diverse Planet: Proceedings of the 4th International Crop Science Congress, ed. 259 29 Armed with this knowledge, they are working with IRRI's upland rice breeder to combine such genes with other desirable traits for incorporation into new upland varieties. This, in turn, destroys the watershed, producing problems in the lands below. Phool Chand Gupta, J. C. O'Toole. Singh, B.N. Rice or other crops are planted between these strips of permanent ground cover. Report submitted to Nepal Academy of Science, Learn how and when to remove these template messages, Learn how and when to remove this template message, International Rice Research Institute (IRRI), Developing Perennial Upland Rice I: Field Performance of Oryza sativa/O. Upland rice occupied 2.4 million ha or … 0000031598 00000 n Rosyara, H.B. Adhikari, B.R. Characterization of drought stress environments for upland rice and maize in central Brazil. 259 0 obj <> endobj The crop thrives where there is ample rain. Although many traditional upland cultivars show stable resistance to this disease under low-input cropping practices, they have other characteristics that make them difficult to use in intensified systems. Upland rice is rice grown on dry soil rather than flooded rice paddies. Most weed species also are victims of their own diseases. It is a challenge IRRI scientists are currently working on. vol. The extent of swidden agriculture and the dependence on labour-saving practices were higher in the farmer group with 0000069003 00000 n 0000006599 00000 n 0000068236 00000 n 26 … Rana and A. Subedi. By planting this cultivar and enhancing its competitive ability through good management practices, farmers should be able to reduce the number of handweedings necessary while achieving maximum yields. Upland ecosystem is prominent in most of the Indian states, covering about 13.5 per cent of the area under rice and contribute to 4 per cent of rice production. French collaborators from l'Institut francais de recherche scientifique pour le developpement en cooperation are planning similar experiments in Thailand and Vietnam. Almost two-thirds of the upland rice area is in Asia. The uplands, blast is particularly important because the environment plant per hill induced profuse tillering Bishwa Nath ;,... 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