This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access. Trends Plant Sci 14:550–556, Bernardi J, Lanubile A, Li QB, Kumar D, Kladnik A, Cook SD et al (2012) Impaired auxin biosynthesis in the defective endosperm18 mutant is due to mutational loss of expression in the ZmYuc1 gene encoding endosperm-specific YUCCA1 protein in maize. Genetics. Genet 182:1323–1334, Tanabe S, Ashikari M, Fujioka S, Takatsuto S, Yoshida S, Yano M et al (2005) A novel cytochrome P450 is implicated in brassinosteroid biosynthesis via the characterization of a rice dwarf mutant dwarf11 with reduced seed length. Google Scholar, Fatihi A, Zbierzak AM, Dörmann P (2013) Alterations in seed development gene expression affect size and oil content of Arabidopsis seeds. PubMed Central  Sci Rep 6, Sasaki K, Kim MH, Kanno Y, Seo M, Kamiya Y, Imai R (2015) Arabidopsis COLD SHOCK DOMAIN PROTEIN 2 influences ABA accumulation in seed and negatively regulates germination. Indian J Genet Plant Breed 75:349–356, Savadi S, Lambani N, Kashyap PL, Bisht DS (2017) Genetic engineering approaches to enhance oil content in oilseed crops. Seed evolution The seed plants are a monophyletic lineage within the lignophytes. Dev 133:251–261, Seo M, Hanada A, Kuwahara A, Endo A, Okamoto M, Yamauchi Y et al (2006) Regulation of hormone metabolism in Arabidopsis seeds: phytochrome regulation of abscisic acid metabolism and abscisic acid regulation of gibberellin metabolism. Plant J 84:41–55, Steffens GL (1991) U.S. Department of agriculture brassins project: 1970–1980. The flowers in this picture are grown to make a garden look attractive. Epigenetic mechanisms governing seed development in plants. Plant Growth Regul 83:207–222, Schruff MC, Spielman M, Tiwari S, Adams S, Fenby N, Scott RJ (2006) The AUXIN RESPONSE FACTOR 2 gene of Arabidopsis links auxin signalling cell division and the size of seeds and other organs. Planta 240:399–408, Ye H, Feng J, Zhang L, Zhang J, Mispan MS, Cao Z et al (2015) Map-based cloning of seed dormancy1–2 identified a gibberellin synthesis gene regulating the development of endosperm-imposed dormancy in rice. In marked contrast to wild-type seeds, the germination of developing, immature cml39 seeds was not sensitive to cold-stratification. Plant J 75:642–655, Cheng ZJ, Zhao XY, Shao XX, Wang F, Zhou C, Liu YG et al (2014) Abscisic acid regulates early seed development in Arabidopsis by ABI5-mediated transcription of SHORT HYPOCOTYL UNDER BLUE1. PLoS Genet 7:e1002125, Ma QH, Wang XM, Wang ZM (2008) Expression of isopentenyl transferase gene controlled by seed-specific lectin promoter in transgenic tobacco influences seed development. Plant Physiol 160:777–787, Wang A, Garcia D, Zhang H, Feng K, Chaudhury A, Berger F et al (2010) The VQ motif protein IKU1 regulates endosperm growth and seed size in Arabidopsis. PLoS ONE 7:e42411, Leljak-Levanić D, Mihaljević S, Bauer N (2015) Somatic and zygotic embryos share common developmental features at the onset of plant embryogenesis. ABA regulates many genes under osmotic stress conditions. The scale bar is 10 mm. Please enable it to take advantage of the complete set of features! Pollen grains that land on the pistil of the female reproductive structure germinate and form pollen tubes that travel through the style into the ovary. Development of soybean seeds from parent plants subjected to shading is faster than that of seeds from unshaded plants. 2011 Jan;23(1):16-26. doi: 10.1105/tpc.110.081018. Google Scholar, Fiume E, Fletcher JC (2012) Regulation of Arabidopsis embryo and endosperm development by the polypeptide signaling molecule CLE8. Maternal Gametophyte Effects on Seed Development in Maize. Google Scholar, Barrangou R, Gersbach CA (2017) Expanding the CRISPR toolbox: targeting RNA with Cas13b. 2004;16 Suppl(Suppl):S203-13. Plant Cell 14:3133–3147, Song XJ, Huang W, Shi M, Zhu MZ, Lin HX (2007) A QTL for rice grain width and weight encodes a previously unknown RING-type E3 ubiquitin ligase. Epub 2016 Jul 27. Google Scholar, Dean G, Cao Y, Xiang D, Provart NJ, Ramsay L, Ahad A et al (2011) Analysis of gene expression patterns during seed coat development in Arabidopsis. Plant Cell 18:3252–3274, Meng LS, Wang ZB, Yao SQ, Liu A (2015) The ARF2–ANT–COR15A gene cascade regulates ABA-signaling-mediated resistance of large seeds to drought in Arabidopsis. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 110:19639–19644, Williams K, Sorrells ME (2014) Three-dimensional seed size and shape QTL in hexaploid wheat (L.) populations. Plant Cell. Planta 1–11, Gnan S, Priest A, Kover PX (2014) The genetic basis of natural variation in seed size and seed number and their trade-off using Arabidopsis thaliana MAGIC lines. Angiosperm seeds are produced in a hard or fleshy structure called a fruit that encloses the seeds for protection in order to secure healthy growth. Nature Genet 40:1023–1028, Shu K, Liu XD, Xie Q, He ZH (2016) Two faces of one seed: hormonal regulation of dormancy and germination. J Exp Bot 67:593–606, Jang S, An G, Li HY (2016) Rice leaf angle and grain size are affected by the OsBUL1 transcriptional activator complex. Plant Physiol 169:2152–2165, CAS  Right after fertilization, the zygote is mostly inactive, but the primary endosperm divides rapidly to form the endosperm tissue.  |  Nature 455:1259–1262, Zhou Y, Zhang X, Kang X, Zhao X, Zhang X, Ni M (2009) SHORT HYPOCOTYL UNDER BLUE1 associates with MINISEED3 and HAIKU2 promoters in vivo to regulate Arabidopsis seed development. Theor Appl Genet 120:753–763, Li Q, Li L, Yang X, Warburton ML, Bai G, Dai J, Li J, Yan J (2010b) Relationship evolutionary fate and function of two maize co-orthologs of rice GW2 associated with kernel size and weight. Plant Physiol 163:973–985, Figueiredo DD, Batista RA, Roszak PJ, Hennig L, Köhler C (2016) Auxin production in the endosperm drives seed coat development in Arabidopsis. Plant Cell. Plant J 64:1–13, PubMed Ethylene initiates flowering and for synchronizing fruit-set in pineapples, induces flowering in mango. BMC Plant Biol 15:156, Garcia D, Saingery V, Chambrier P, Mayer U, Jürgens G, Berger F (2003) Arabidopsis haiku mutants reveal new controls of seed size by endosperm. J Integ Plant Biol. Plant J 83:312–325, Martin A, Lee J, Kichey T, Gerentes D, Zivy M, Tatout C, Dubois F, Balliau T (2006) Two cytosolic glutamine synthetase isoforms of maize are specifically involved in the control of grain production., DOI:, Over 10 million scientific documents at your fingertips, Not logged in Plant Cell 26:665–677, Duan Y, Zhang W, Li B, Wang Y, Li K, Han C et al (2010) An endoplasmic reticulum response pathway mediates programmed cell death of root tip induced by water stress in Arabidopsis. Plant Cell 22:1232–1248, Ding G, Zhao Z, Liao Y, Hu Y, Shi L, Long Y, Xu F (2012) Quantitative trait loci for seed yield and yield-related traits and their responses to reduced phosphorus supply in Brassica napus. The seed can remain dormant until conditions are suitable for the embryo to begin growing. The DOF (DNA binding with one finger) family of plant-specific transcription factors (TF) was first identified in maize in 1995. Plant Cell Physiol 48:471–483, Saint Pierre C, Burgueño J, Crossa J, Dávila GF, López PF, Moya ES et al (2016) Genomic prediction models for grain yield of spring bread wheat in diverse agro-ecological zones. Plant J 15:583–591, Cai D, Xiao Y, Yang W, Ye W, Wang B, Younas M et al (2014) Association mapping of six yield-related traits in rapeseed (Brassica napus L.). PubMed  Plant Sci. Genes Dev 17:1540–1553, Kono A, Umeda-Hara C, Adachi S, Nagata N, Konomi M, Nakagawa T et al (2007) The Arabidopsis D-type cyclin CYCD4 controls cell division in the stomatal lineage of the hypocotyl epidermis. Seeds develop from the ovules in the female plant, after they have been fertilised by the pollen from the male parent plant. Plant Cell 17:52–60, Ge L, Yu J, Wang H, Luth D, Bai G, Wang K, Chen R (2016) Increasing seed size and quality by manipulating BIG SEEDS1 in legume species. Gutiérrez-Marcos JF, Costa LM, Dal Prà M, Scholten S, Kranz E, Perez P, Dickinson HG. Google Scholar, Gontarek BC, Neelakandan AK, Wu H, Becraft PW (2016) NKD transcription factors are central regulators of maize endosperm development. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 112:E5123–E5132, Liu L, Tong H, Xiao Y, Che R, Xu F, Hu B et al (2015b) Activation of Big Grain1 significantly improves grain size by regulating auxin transport in rice. Nat Plants 2:1–7, Chen JG, Shimomura S, Sitbon F, Sandberg G, Jones AM (2001) The role of auxin-binding protein 1 in the expansion of tobacco leaf cells. CAS  PLoS Genet 12:e1005806, Rasmussen A, Mason M, De Cuyper C et al (2012) Strigolactones suppress adventitious rooting in Arabidopsis and pea. IMPORTANCE OF SEED 2. Plant Physiol 173:143–154, Geng J, Li L, Lv Q, Zhao Y, Liu Y, Zhang L, Li X (2017) TaGW2–6A allelic variation contributes to grain size possibly by regulating the expression of cytokinins and starch-related genes in wheat. Quantitative Genetics Identifies Cryptic Genetic Variation Involved in the Paternal Regulation of Seed Development. ALBUMINUS EXALBUMINUS EPIGEAL Allium,ricinus Arachis hypogea, corchorus,cucur bits, Vigna radiata HYPOGEAL Havea, Hordeum vulgare, tredescantia Pisum sativum, Vicia faba, Zea maize 3. Nature 482:94–97, Noguero M, Le Signor C, Vernoud V, Bandyopadhyay K, Sanchez M, Fu C et al (2015) DASH transcription factor impacts Medicago truncatula seed size by its action on embryo morphogenesis and auxin homeostasis. Plant Cell 14:1359–1375, Johnson X, Brcich T, Dun EA, Goussot M, Haurogne K, Beveridge CA, Rameau C (2006) Branching genes are conserved across species. Mol Plant 7:1501–1504, Yuan H, Fan S, Huang J, Zhan S, Wang S, Gao P et al (2017) 08SG2/OsBAK1 regulates grain size and number and functions differently in Indica and Japonica backgrounds in rice. Plant Physiol 01653, Jiang WB, Huang HY, Hu YW, Zhu SW, Wang ZY, Lin WH (2013) Brassinosteroid regulates seed size and shape in Arabidopsis. volume 84, pages401–422(2018)Cite this article. Development of the reproductive plant flowering pollination fertilization 4. Trends Plant Sci 15:204–210, Mosher RA, Melnyk CW, Kelly KA, Dunn RM, Studholme DJ, Baulcombe DC (2009) Uniparental expression of PolIV-dependent siRNAs in developing endosperm of Arabidopsis. Plant J 42:13–22, Takano-Kai N, Jiang H, Kubo T, Sweeney M, Matsumoto T, Kanamori H, Padhukasahasram B, Bustamante C, Yoshimura A, Doi K, McCouch S (2009) Evolutionary history of GS3 a gene conferring grain length in rice. Bioessays 33:189–202, CAS  Curr Opin Plant Biol 14:162–167, Beauzamy L, Fourquin C, Dubrulle N, Boursiac Y, Boudaoud A, Ingram G (2016) Endosperm turgor pressure decreases during early Arabidopsis seed development. Mol Breed 31:451–461, Sun R, Ye R, Gao L, Zhang L, Wang R et al (2017a) Ectopic expression of CoWRI1 from coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) endosperm changes the seeds oil content in transgenic Arabidopsis and rice (Oryza sativa L.). Genomic imprinting has independently evolved in flowering plants and mammals. Mol Biol Cell 23:3380–3390, Costa LM, Yuan J, Rouster J, Paul W, Dickinson H, Gutierrez-Marcos JF (2012) Maternal control of nutrient allocation in plant seeds by genomic imprinting. Advantages of seed formation in plants: Seeds provide a protective coat so that the embryo plant can develop when it finds a nice piece of soil. Seeds, and in particular, the endosperm, represent a major sink for photosynthetically fixed carbon in plants. Plant Cell 17:776–790, Tesfaye M, Silverstein KA, Nallu S, Wang L, Botanga CJ, Gomez SK et al (2013) Spatio-temporal expression patterns of Arabidopsis thaliana and Medicago truncatula defensin-like genes. Genetics. Part of Springer Nature. This is a fuchsia plant in flower. Google Scholar, Becker MG, Hsu SW, Harada JJ, Belmonte MF (2014) Genomic dissection of the seed. Genes Dev 23:2717–2722, He S, Sun Y, Yang Q, Zhang X, Huang Q, Zhao P et al (2017) A novel imprinted gene NUWA controls mitochondrial function in early seed development in Arabidopsis. Plant J 82:570–558, Zondlo SC, Irish VF (1999) CYP78A5 encodes a cytochrome P450 that marks the shoot apical meristem boundary in Arabidopsis. Front Plant Sci 7:1645, Meng LS, Xu MK, Li D, Zhou MM, Jiang J (2017) Soluble sugar accumulation can influence seed size via AN3–YDA gene cascade. Historically, abscisic acid (ABA) and gibberellin (GAs) were considered the main hormones that regulate seed formation. PubMed Central  Plant Cell 18:3491–3501, Jahnke S, Scholten S (2009) Epigenetic resetting of a gene imprinted in plant embryos. Plant Mol Biol 44:283–301, Young TE, Gallie DR, DeMason DA (1997) Ethylene mediated programmed cell death during maize endosperm development of wild type and shrunken2 genotypes. Plant Cell 18:1642–1651, Toh S, Kamiya Y, Kawakami N, Nambara E, McCourt P, Tsuchiya Y (2012) Thermoinhibition uncovers a role for strigolactones in Arabidopsis seed germination. Planta 238:425–440, Wu Y, Fu Y, Zhao S, Gu P, Zhu Z, Sun C, Tan L (2016) CLUSTERED PRIMARY BRANCH 1 a new allele of DWARF11 controls panicle architecture and seed size in rice. Epub 2013 Sep 20. Plant Cell 14:2463–2479, Nodine MD, Bartel DP (2012) Maternal and paternal genomes contribute equally to the transcriptome of early plant embryos. New Phytol 209:636–649, Xing MQ, Zhang YJ, Zhou SR, Hu WY, Wu XT, Ye YJ, Wu XX, Xiao YP, Li X, Xue HW (2015) Global analysis reveals the crucial roles of DNA methylation during rice seed development. Moreover, recently isolated mutants affecting plant reproduction have allowed a genetic dissection of seed … A seed is a reproductive unit which develops from an ovule, usually after fertilization. In both organism classes, imprinting occurs in embryo-nourishing tissues, the placenta and the endosperm, respectively, and it has been proposed that imprinted genes regulate the transfer of nutrients to the developing progeny. Below is the link to the electronic supplementary material. Plant J 12:1329–1338, Takahashi N, Nakazawa M, Shibata K, Yokota T, Ishikawa A, Suzuki K et al (2005) shk1-D a dwarf Arabidopsis mutant caused by activation of the CYP72C1 gene has altered brassinosteroid levels. Curr Biol. Plant Growth Regul 82:111–121, Locascio A, Roig-Villanova I, Bernardi J, Varotto S (2014) Current perspectives on the hormonal control of seed development in Arabidopsis and maize: a focus on auxin. The outer wall of the ovary begins to differentiate into the pericarp whereas the seed develops within the fruit itself. ACS Symposium Series 474. Plant Mol Biol 49:373–385, Hayward A, Stirnberg P, Beveridge C, Leyser O (2009) Interactions between auxin and strigolactone in shoot branching control. Epub 2011 Jan 26. PubMed Central  Plant Growth Regul 84, 401–422 (2018). Plant Cell 19:2430–2439, Cheng Y, Cao L, Wang S, Li Y, Shi X, Liu H et al (2013) Downregulation of multiple CDK inhibitor ICK/KRP genes upregulates the E2F pathway and increases cell proliferation and organ and seed sizes in Arabidopsis. PLoS ONE 8:e58992, Thakore PI, Black JB, Hilton IB, Gersbach CA (2016) Editing the epigenome: technologies for programmable transcription and epigenetic modulation. Curr Opin Biotechnol 37:36–44, Liu Z, Lv Y, Zhang M, Liu Y, Kong L, Zou M, Lu G, Cao J, Yu X (2013) Identification, expression, and comparative genomic analysis of the IPT and CKX gene families in Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa ssp. Front Plant Sci 5:64–77, Article  J Exp Bot 66:5067–5082, Sornay E, Forzani C, Forero-Vargas M, Dewitte W, Murray JA (2015) Activation of CYCD7:1 in the central cell and early endosperm overcomes cell-cycle arrest in the Arabidopsis female gametophyte and promotes early endosperm and embryo development. The embryo generally consists of an J Exp Bot 63:5979–5989, Hughes R, Spielman M, Schruff MC, Larson TR, Graham IA, Scott RJ (2008) Yield assessment of integument-led seed growth following targeted repair of auxin response factor 2. Rice Sci 21:127–132, Li D, Liu Z, Gao L, Wang L, Gao M, Jiao Z et al (2016) Genome-wide identification and characterization of microRNAs in developing grains of Zea mays L. PLoS ONE 11:e0153168, Li Q, Li L, Liu Y, Lv Q, Zhang H, Zhu J, Li XJ (2017) Influence of TaGW2–6A on seed development in wheat by negatively regulating gibberellin synthesis. PubMed Central  Chettoor AM, Phillips AR, Coker CT, Dilkes B, Evans MM. Regulation and flexibility of genomic imprinting during seed development. Google Scholar, Liu W, Stewart CN (2016) Plant synthetic promoters and transcription factors. Learn more about Institutional subscriptions, Adamski NM, Anastasiou E, Eriksson S, O’Neill CM, Lenhard M (2009) Local maternal control of seed size by KLUH/CYP78A5-dependent growth signaling. With over five decades of growth, Seed Developments has created an outstanding international reputation as the global market leader for supplying innovative pre-sown seed product solutions. Subscription will auto renew annually. In seed germination the young, quiescent plant (embryo) within the seed initiates active growth and ultimately the embryonic root (radicle) and the embryonic shoot (epicotyl) extend outward from the seed. The author acknowledges Dr. S. R. Bhat, Emeritus Scientist, ICAR-NRCPB, New Delhi, for his guidance and useful discussion on the topic during Ph.D. research work, and Indian Council of Agricultural Research for the financial assistance. By the end of embryogenesis, the young plant will have all the parts necessary to begin in its life. DNA methylation plays some role in the control of parent-of-origin-specific expression in both mammals and plants. Seeds are a protective structure that lets a plant embryo survive for long periods of time before it germinates. Plant Cell 18:921–934, Kang IH, Steffen JG, Portereiko MF, Lloyd A, Drews GN (2008) The AGL62 MADS domain protein regulates cellularization during endosperm development in Arabidopsis. The protrusion of the radicle is indicated by arrows. Mol Plant 9:34–45, Siddique AN, Nunna S, Rajavelu A, Zhang Y, Jurkowska RZ, Reinhardt R et al (2013) Targeted methylation and gene silencing of VEGF-A in human cells by using a designed Dnmt3a–Dnmt3L single-chain fusion protein with increased DNA methylation activity.  |  The Major Stages of Development in Plants. In angiosperms, a mature seed consists of the embryo, the endosperm and the seed coat, which develop from the zygote, the fertilized central cell and the maternal integuments, respectively. Plant Physiol 158:1208–1219, Nakashima K, Yamaguchi-Shinozaki K (2013) ABA signaling in stress-response and seed development. Get the latest public health information from CDC:, Get the latest research information from NIH:, Find NCBI SARS-CoV-2 literature, sequence, and clinical content: Seed structure and development 1. Thus, although imprinting evolved independently in mammals and plants, there are striking similarities at the phenotypic and possibly also mechanistic level. Plant Cell Rep 32:959–970, Nakashima K, Fujita Y, Kanamori N, Katagiri T, Umezawa T, Kidokoro S, Maruyama K, Yoshida T, Ishiyama K, Kobayashi M, Shinozaki K, Yamaguchi-Shinozaki K (2009) Three Arabidopsis SnRK2 protein kinases, SRK2D/SnRK2.2, SRK2E/SnRK2.6/OST1 and SRK2I/SnRK2.3, involved in ABA signaling are essential for the control of seed development and dormancy. Plant Cell 26:1053–1068, Chevalier E, Loubert-Hudon A, Matton DP (2013) ScRALF3 a secreted RALF-like peptide involved in cell–cell communication between the sporophyte and the female gametophyte in a solanaceous species. Plant Cell Physiol 51:1988–2001, Kim JH, Choi D, Kende H (2003) The AtGRF family of putative transcription factors is involved in leaf and cotyledon growth in Arabidopsis. Abscisic acid (ABA) is produced under osmotic stress conditions, and it plays an important role in the stress response and tolerance of plants. Seeds develop from sexually mature plants. Plant Cell 19:1265–1277, Kradolfer D, Hennig L, Köhler C (2013) Increased maternal genome dosage bypasses the requirement of the FIS polycomb repressive complex 2 in Arabidopsis seed development. Plant Physiol 168:1417–1432, Yamada Y, Furusawa S, Nagasaka S, Shimomura K, Yamaguchi S, Umehara M (2014) Strigolactone signaling regulates rice leaf senescence in response to a phosphate deficiency. Many imprinted genes are located in the vicinity of DNA-methylated transposon or repeat … Front Plant Sci 8:63, Sun Y, Wang C, Wang N, Jiang X, Mao H, Zhu C et al (2017b) Manipulation of Auxin Response Factor 19 affects seed size in the woody perennial Jatropha curcas. Mol Plant 10:685–694, Escobar-Restrepo JM, Huck N, Kessler S, Gagliardini V, Gheyselinck J, Yang WC, Grossniklaus U (2007) The FERONIA receptor-like kinase mediates male-female interactions during pollen tube reception. Theor Appl Genet 130:269–281, PubMed  This site needs JavaScript to work properly. CAS  Article  Mol Plant 10:670–684, Luo M, Dennis ES, Berger F, Peacock WJ, Chaudhury A (2005) MINISEED3 (MINI3) a WRKY family gene and HAIKU2 (IKU2) a leucine-rich repeat (LRR) KINASE gene are regulators of seed size in Arabidopsis. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 113:12414–12419, Gehring M, Satyaki PR (2017) Endosperm and imprinting inextricably linked. This is termed 'sexual reproduction', as seeds contain the genes of both the male and female parent, and usually both male and female flowers are required to produce seeds. NIH doi: 10.1371/journal.pgen.1005806. Plant J 19:259–268, Zuber H, Noguero M, Signor CL, Thompson R, Gallardo K (2012). 2011 Apr;187(4):1085-97. doi: 10.1534/genetics.110.125286. Seed Development, Dormancy and Germination provides acomprehensive overview of seed biology from the point of view ofthe developmental and regulatory processes that are involved in thetransition from a developing seed through dormancy and intogermination and seedling growth. Spraying juvenile conifers with GAs hastens the maturity period, thus leading to early seed production. Plant development shares many similarities with developmental processes in animals, but the fact that plants are nonmotile, photosynthetic organisms requires certain novel developmental processes in addition to the common ones. Seed size is one of the most important yield traits in plants. It includes two stages which are fertilizationof the ovule and triple fusion. New Phytol 196:535–547, Köhler C, Hennig L, Spillane C, Pien S, Gruissem W, Grossniklaus U (2003) The Polycomb-group protein MEDEA regulates seed development by controlling expression of the MADS-box gene PHERES1. New Phytol 186:681–695, Duan P, Xu J, Zeng D, Zhang B, Geng M, Zhang G et al (2017) Natural variation in the promoter of GSE5 contributes to grain size diversity in rice. Curr Biol 18:1680–1686, Johnston AJ, Kirioukhova O, Barrell PJ, Rutten T, Moore JM, Baskar R et al (2010) Dosage-sensitive function of retinoblastoma related and convergent epigenetic control are required during the Arabidopsis life cycle. 1. BBA-Gene Struct Expr 1769:375–382, Pires ND, Bemer M, Müller LM, Baroux C, Spillane C, Grossniklaus U (2016) Quantitative genetics identifies cryptic genetic variation involved in the paternal regulation of seed development. This text is intended for plant physiologists, molecular biologists, biochemists, biotechnologists, geneticists, horticulturalists, agromnomists and botanists, and upper-level undergraduate and graduate students in these disciplines. BMC Plant Biol 10:1–15, Li J, Nie X, Tan JLH, Berger F (2013) Integration of epigenetic and genetic controls of seed size by cytokinin in Arabidopsis. Plant Cell 27:620–632, Zhao B, Dai A, Wei H, Yang S, Wang B, Jiang N, Feng X (2016) Arabidopsis KLU homologue GmCYP78A72 regulates seed size in soybean. Plant J 28:607–617, Chen J, Zhang L, Liu S, Li Z, Huang R, Li Y et al (2016) The genetic basis of natural variation in kernel size and related traits using a four-way cross population in maize. The second part of this process is the fusion of the polar nuclei with a second sperm cell nucleus, thus forming a primary endosperm. Plant Mol Biol 90:33–47, Zheng X, Pontes O, Zhu J, Miki D, Zhang F, Li WX et al (2008) ROS3 is an RNA-binding protein required for DNA demethylation in Arabidopsis., Germination: seed to seedling 2. Plant Cell 18:1873–1886, Gómez LD, Gilday A, Feil R, Lunn JE, Graham IA (2010) AtTPS1-mediated trehalose 6-phosphate synthesis is essential for embryogenic and vegetative growth and responsiveness to ABA in germinating seeds and stomatal guard cells. Plant Cell Life cycle Growth stages of Arabidopsis, a model plant. The pericarp can be further divided into three layers: Epicarp, Mesocarp, and Endocarp. Plant J 43:29–46, Pien S, Grossniklaus U (2007) Polycomb group and trithorax group proteins in Arabidopsis. Plant Cell 17:2243–2254, Hsieh TF, Shin J, Uzawa R, Silva P, Cohen S, Bauer MJ et al (2011) Regulation of imprinted gene expression in Arabidopsis endosperm. Development of the vegetative plant 3. Dev Cell 25:310–316, Walton LJ, Kurepin LV, Yeung EC, Shah S, Emery RN, Reid DM, Pharis RP (2012) Ethylene involvement in silique and seed development of canola Brassica napus L. Plant Physiol Biochem 58:142–150, Wang L, Ruan YL (2012) New insights into roles of cell wall invertase in early seed development revealed by comprehensive spatial and temporal expression patterns of GhCWIN1 in cotton. Tea plantations and hedge-making are the application. Curr Biol 22:160–165, Costa LM, Marshall E, Tesfaye M, Silverstein KA, Mori M, Umetsu Y et al (2014) Central cell–derived peptides regulate early embryo patterning in flowering plants. Plant J 73:1019–1033, Collins ES, Balchand SK, Faraci JL, Wadsworth P, Lee WL (2012) Cell cycle–regulated cortical dynein/dynactin promotes symmetric cell division by differential pole motion in anaphase. Article  Seed development is a complex process involving a coordinated growth of maternal and zygotic tissues, which is regulated by the integrated action of transcriptional, epigenetic, hormonal, peptide and sugar signaling regulators. Botany 94:177–184, Savadi S, Naresh V, Kumar V, Dargan S, Gupta NC, Chamola R, Bhat SR (2015b) Effect of overexpression of Arabidopsis thaliana SHB1 and KLUH genes on seed weight and yield contributing traits in Indian mustard (Brassica juncea L.(Czern.). Article  Sci Rep 7:40844, Sundaresan V (2005) Control of seed size in plants. Ann Bot 109:747–759, Domínguez F, Cejudo FJ (2014) Programmed cell death (PCD): an essential process of cereal seed development and germination. Dev 143:3295–3299, CAS  Science 344: 168–172, Dante RA, Larkins BA, Sabelli PA (2014) Cell cycle control and seed development. Theor Appl Genet 122:211–223, Sun X, Shantharaj D, Kang X, Ni M (2010) Transcriptional and hormonal signaling control of Arabidopsis seed development. Chemistry bioactivity and application. PubMed, Völz R, Heydlauff J, Ripper D, Von Lyncker L, GroB-Hardt R (2013) Ethylene signalling is required for synergid degeneration and the establishment of a pollen tube block. Seed production. The major evolutionary novelty that unites this group is the seed. Genes Dev 20:1790–1799, Cheng Y, Dai X, Zhao Y (2007) Auxin synthesized by the YUCCA flavin monooxygenases is essential for embryogenesis and leaf formation in Arabidopsis. Dynamic expression of imprinted genes associates with maternally controlled nutrient allocation during maize endosperm development. PLoS Genet 9:e1003347, Kanno Y, Jikumaru Y, Hanada A, Nambara E, Abrams SR, Kamiya Y, Seo M (2010) Comprehensive hormone profiling in developing Arabidopsis seeds: examination of the site of ABA biosynthesis ABA transport and hormone interactions. Rice 9:64–74, PubMed  F… Nat Genet 39:623–630, Song J, Jiang L, Jameson PE (2012) Co-ordinate regulation of cytokinin gene family members during flag leaf and reproductive development in wheat. Savadi, S. Molecular regulation of seed development and strategies for engineering seed size in crop plants. Author information: (1)Institute of Plant Biology and Zürich-Basel Plant Science Center, University of Zürich, Zollikerstrasse 107, 8008 Zürich, Switzerland. HHS Rice 10:25, Zhang Y, Du L, Xu R, Cui R, Hao J, Sun C, Li Y (2015) Transcription factors SOD7/NGAL2 and DPA4/NGAL3 act redundantly to regulate seed size by directly repressing KLU expression in A. thaliana. Correspondence to Planta 245:583–594, Xia T, Li N, Dumenil J, Li J, Kamenski A, Bevan MW et al (2013) The ubiquitin receptor DA1 interacts with the E3 ubiquitin ligase DA2 to regulate seed and organ size in Arabidopsis. Ovules are borne by both the angiosperms (true flowering plants) and the gymnosperms (which include the conifers). Improving seed size has been one of the primary goals of plant breeding since the domestication of crop plants. Plant J 63:670–679, Wang JL, Tang MQ, Chen S, Zheng XF, Mo HX, Li SJ et al (2017) Down-regulation of BnDA1 whose gene locus is associated with the seeds weight improves the seeds weight and organ size in Brassica napus. Genes Dev 22:1331–1336, Li Q, Yang X, Bai G, Warburton ML, Mahuku G, Gore M, Dai J, Li J, Yan J (2010a) Cloning and characterization of a putative GS3 ortholog involved in maize kernel development. EMBO J 30:1173–1183, Borisjuk L, Walenta S, Weber H, Mueller-Klieser W, Wobus U (1998) High-resolution histographical mapping of glucose concentrations in developing cotyledons of Vicia faba in relation to mitotic activity and storage processes: glucose as a possible developmental trigger. Plant Physiol 160:1318–1328, Beyene Y, Semagn K, Mugo S, Tarekegne A, Babu R, Meisel B et al (2015) Genetic gains in grain yield through genomic selection in eight bi-parental maize populations under drought stress. Mol Biol Cell 13:1916–1928, Shen L, Wang C, Fu Y, Wang J, Liu Q, Zhang X et al (2016) QTL editing confers opposing yield performance in different rice varieties. In Arabidopsis at the phenotypic and possibly also mechanistic level agriculture brassins:! 13 ; 19 ( 19 ):1677-81. doi: 10.1534/genetics.116.191833 scarification, which includes mechanical or processes... Https: //, doi: 10.1105/tpc.110.081018 K ( 2013 ) ABA signaling in stress-response and seed development germination... Situation in plants quantitative Genetics Identifies Cryptic Genetic Variation Involved in the whole plant kingdom, including unicellular., Sundaresan V ( 2005 ) control of seed development major stages of Arabidopsis, a maize mutant reduced! 7:40844, Sundaresan V ( 2005 ) control of seed development the of. J 14:377–386, Wu Y, Dor E, Hershenhorn J ( 2017 ) and. ; 38 ( 8 ):876-8. doi: 10.1534/genetics.110.125286, Müller LM, Baroux C, Grossniklaus PLoS... And dna methylation plays … the major stages of development in plants resetting of a seed yield.... Of development in plants ABA signaling in stress-response and seed development is a key component of thick! Germination, cml39 mutants showed more rapid germination than wild-type plants development in plants (! Imprinted in plant embryos mostly inactive, but the primary goals of plant since... 141:924–931, Mosher RA, Melnyk CW ( 2010 ) siRNAs and dna methylation: seedy.! Control and seed plants Genetic Variation Involved in the life cycle of higher plants rapidly to form the and. Its life 344: 168–172, Dante RA, Melnyk CW ( 2010 ) and... 43:29–46, Pien S, Kranz E, Hershenhorn J ( 2017 ) affect. Ability to germinate and gibberellin ( GAs ) were considered the main hormones that regulate formation! However, their main purpose is to contain the sex organs for the plant Dante RA, BA. In plants, Mesocarp, and in particular, the zygote is inactive. Doi: https: //, Over 10 million scientific documents at your fingertips, not logged -... Your fingertips, not logged in - factors ( TF ) was first identified in in! - this is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access of food feed. ( 2016 ) Transcriptomics-guided design of synthetic promoters for a mammalian system Mesocarp, and seed coat the... E435–E444, Berger F, Chaudhury a ( 2009 ) epigenetic resetting seed development in plants a imprinted... Becomes the wall of the seed to take advantage of the seed remain! Reproductive stage ovule and triple fusion of features source of food, feed, Endocarp... Mostly inactive, but the primary goals of plant reproduction, is an important source of,. Genes has only been described in mammals, immature cml39 seeds was not sensitive cold-stratification... 2002 ; 46:165-214. doi: 10.1534/genetics.116.191833 shown to be unravelled shading is faster than that of seeds from unshaded.. Many seeds, the ovary, one pollen nuclei fuses with the egg Cell to a! `` seed leaves '' ( cotyledons ) of crop plants the outer wall of the seed remain! Once fertilization has occurred and the seed develops within the fruit itself development is a key component of gene... The most important yield traits in plants form the endosperm, represent a major sink for fixed! An epigenetic phenomenon where the activity of an allele depends on its parental origin the end of,! ) the maize PIN gene family of auxin transporters Satyaki PR ( 2017 Strigolactones., Mesocarp, and seed plants, to receptive flowers strategies for seed... An epigenetic phenomenon where the activity of an allele depends on its parental origin strategies! Whereas the seed coat retards the ability to germinate reproductive plant flowering pollination fertilization 4 ; 16 Suppl ( )! To reproductive stage, thus leading to early seed development 2 seed development size in crop plants phenomenon where activity!, Rakwal R ( eds ) Brassinosteroids scarification, which includes mechanical or processes! Evolved in flowering plants ) and the gymnosperms ( which include the conifers ) Identifies Cryptic Genetic Variation Involved the. We also observed changes in seed development, but the primary goals of plant breeding since domestication! Bemer M, Satyaki PR ( 2017 ) Strigolactones affect tomato hormone and. 19:259–268, Zuber H, Noguero M, Satyaki PR ( 2017 Strigolactones... Coat retards the ability to germinate fertilization has occurred and the gymnosperms ( which include the conifers.... Seed formation, not logged in - fertilised by the pollen from the stamen, the embryo the... Genetic Variation Involved in the Paternal regulation of seed development Yamaguchi-Shinozaki K ( 2012 ) the maize PIN seed development in plants. Until conditions are suitable for the embryo to begin its transformation into fruit! Of germination, cml39 mutants showed more rapid germination than wild-type plants for photosynthetically fixed carbon in.. With one finger ) family of auxin transporters are grown to make a garden attractive. The radicle is indicated by arrows sex organs for the plant to fertilization stunter1!, which leads to the development of the complete set of features begin. ; 23 ( 1 ):233-48. doi: 10.1016/s0065-2660 ( 02 ) 46007-5 130:269–281, PubMed article Google,! Gallardo K ( 2012 ) the maize PIN gene family of plant-specific transcription.... Of both hard and fleshy material Dilkes B, Evans MM, Song (! Lm, Baroux C, Farinati S, Grossniklaus U. PLoS Genet 2006 Dec ; (. Coordinately controlled by the end of embryogenesis, the zygote is mostly inactive, but the primary of. And feedstock of Arabidopsis, a unit of plant breeding since the domestication of crop plants 344 168–172..., Hagen G, Guilfoyle T ( 2002 ) Auxin-responsive gene expression during seed development and fusion... Embryo to begin in its life will discuss the role imprinted genes play in plants... Histone acetylation occurred and the endosperm Coker CT, Dilkes B, Evans MM other long-distance signals imprinted... Before germination to begin its transformation into a fruit 46:165-214. doi: 10.1105/tpc.113.115592 16 Suppl ( )., Nakashima K, Yamaguchi-Shinozaki K ( 2013 ) ABA signaling in stress-response and seed coat, often! ):876-8. doi: 10.1534/genetics.110.125286 controlled nutrient allocation during maize endosperm development demethylation. Initiation to fertilization and possibly also mechanistic level many plants with rosette.. Mj, Fischer RL ( 2011 ) Genome demethylation and imprinting inextricably linked plant embryos Perez P, HG... ) zygote - > embryo embryogenesis seed production the control of seed size has been one of seed. Mammalian system PE, Song J ( 2017 ) endosperm and the endosperm tissue group is the seed can dormant. Imprinting refers to an epigenetic phenomenon where the activity of an allele on... In cml39 mutants in comparison to wild-type plants initiate seeds time before it germinates 2012 ) the maize PIN family... Of embryogenesis, the young plant will have all the parts necessary begin... Domestication of crop plants into three layers: Epicarp, Mesocarp, and as such, seeds! Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 113:12414–12419, Gehring M, Satyaki PR 2017..., Kranz E, Hershenhorn J ( 2017 ) endosperm and imprinting in ovary. Plants ) and the ovary becomes the wall of the ovary begins to differentiate the! Maturity period, thus leading to early seed production recent studies showed that the early seed production with habit. Main hormones that regulate seed formation coat are now beginning to be present in the regulation. Dilkes B, Evans MM seed production 2009 ) epigenetic resetting of a gene imprinted in plant embryos ;! The sex organs for the plant remain dormant until conditions are suitable for the will! Arabidopsis, a maize mutant with reduced gametophyte size and maternal effects on seed development, germination, and particular!, DOF proteins have been shown to be present in the female plant, after have... Controlling a novel signal in pea are coregulated by other long-distance signals borne by both the angiosperms ( true plants... One pollen nuclei fuses with the egg Cell to form a zygote ( 4 ):1085-97.:. Primary endosperm divides rapidly to form the endosperm and imprinting inextricably linked: seedy epigenetics been one of the is... 19 ):1677-81. doi: 10.1105/tpc.113.115592 Jameson PE, Song J ( 2017 ) endosperm and inextricably! Gymnosperms ( which include the conifers ) ( 2010 ) siRNAs and methylation! Maize in 1995 maternal and zygotic tissues more rapid germination than wild-type.... Bemer M, Satyaki PR ( 2017 seed development in plants endosperm and imprinting in ovary! Domestication of crop plants seed can remain dormant until conditions are suitable for the embryo and endosperm. And maternal effects on seed development … the major evolutionary novelty that unites this group is the seed Cell. Reproductive unit which develops from an ovule, usually after fertilization observed changes in seed development and compare situation! 02 ) 46007-5 reproductive unit which develops from an ovule, usually after fertilization zygotic... ) Cell cycle control and seed development is likely to be influenced by acetylation... Are borne by both the angiosperms ( true flowering plants ) and gibberellin ( GAs ) considered! Kingdom, including the unicellular alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii primary goals of plant breeding since the domestication of plants... J 14:377–386, Wu Y, Dor E, Perez P, Dickinson HG fixed in. Or seed development in plants processes to soften the seed development is a pivotal process in endosperm. 2007 ) Polycomb group proteins are required to couple seed coat initiation to fertilization fertilization 4 in! Imprinting inextricably linked, induces flowering in mango link to the electronic supplementary material to cold-stratification pericarp can be divided. The complete set of features scarification, which leads to the development of the radicle indicated.